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Behrouz Kamalian | Foundation for Defense of Democracies
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Behrouz Kamalian

Title: Head of the Ashiyane Digital Security Team

Sanctions: European Union (October 10, 2011)

According to the Iranian Republic News Agency, Behrouz Kamalian, the leader of an Iranian hacking group known as Ashyaneh Digital Security Team (ADST), ordered his cyber-criminal organization to work for the Iranian government by attacking foreign government and media websites.[1]

The European Union sanctioned Kamalian in October 2011 because Kamalian and his organization helped the regime crack down on protesters during the 2009 political unrest in Iran, according to The Official Journal of the European Union. [2]

[1]“Iranian Hacker: We Work in Cooperation with the Regime,” Iranian Republic News Agency, October 17, 2009. (http://www.thememriblog.org/iran/blog_personal/en/21039.htm)

[2]Council of the European Union, “Council Regulation (EU) No 1002/2011 of 10 October 2011 Implementing Article 12(1) of Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 Concerning Restrictive Measures Directed Against Certain Persons, Entities and Bodies in View of the Situation in Iran,” The Official Journal of the European Union, October 10, 2011, p.5. (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:267:0001:0006:EN:PDF)