E.U. Sanctions

Following UN Security Council Resolution 1636 on October 31, 2005, which imposed travel bans and asset freezes on persons suspected of involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri on February 14, 2005, the EU began imposing sanctions on Syrian individuals in an effort to hold them accountable and pressure them to cooperate with an international investigation. Amid the recent crackdown on protests in Syria, the EU has imposed further sanctions against Syrian individuals and entities involved in violent repression against civilians.

Council Common Position 2005/888/CFSP

On December 12, 2005, the Council of the European Union adopted measures to prevent the admission to EU Member States of persons suspected of involvement in the planning, sponsoring, organizing, or perpetrating the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri on February 14, 2005. In addition, the legislation froze the assets of those persons, and Member States pledged to cooperate fully, in accordance with applicable law, with the international investigation into the assassination.

Council Regulation (EC) No. 305/2006

On February 21, 2006, the Council of the European Union announced measures freezing the assets, financial and otherwise, of persons suspected of involvement in the planning, sponsoring, organizing, or perpetrating the assassination of Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri.

Council Decision 2011/273/CFSP

On May 9, 2011, the Council of the European Union announced an embargo on arms and equipment which might be used for internal repression in Syria. The legislation also imposed a ban on the provision of certain services, restricted admission to the EU of persons responsible for violent repression against the civilian population in Syria, and froze their assets.

Council Regulation (EU) No. 442/2011

On May 9, 2011, the Council of the European Union announced an embargo on equipment which might be used for internal repression in Syria, and froze the assets of the responsible persons.

On May 23, 2011, the Council implemented Regulation 442 against persons, entities, and bodies associated with violent repression against civilians.

On June 23, 2011, the Council expanded the number of persons and entities covered under the asset freeze.

On August 1, 2011, the Council added five individuals to the sanctions list.

On August 23, 2011, the Council added fifteen individuals and five entities to the sanctions list.

On October 13, 2011, the Council added the Commercial Bank of Syria the list of sanctioned entities.

Council Decision 2011/782/CSFP

On December 1, 2011, the Council of the European Union announced that Decision 2011/272/CFSP would be repealed and replaced with Decision 2011/782/CFSP: a culmination of Decision 2011/272/CFSP with further restrictions. New additions to the legislation included bans on certain Syrian exports and imports, restrictions on the financing of certain enterprises, and restrictions on infrastructure projects. Additionally, the legislation expanded the list of sanctioned persons and entities from Decision 2011/273/CFSP.

On January 23, 2012, the Council added twenty-two Syrian individuals and eight entities to the sanctions list.

On February 27, 2012, the Council added seven Syrian individuals and one entity to the sanctions list. Additionally, the Council removed Emad Ghraiwati from the sanctions list covered by Decision 2011/782/CFSP.

On March 23, 2012, the Council added twelve Syrian individuals and two entities to the sanctions list.

On May 14, 2012, the Council added three Syrian individuals and two entities to the sanctions list, and removed Saqr Khayrbik from the list.

Council Regulation 36/2012

On January 18, 2012, the Council of the European Union repealed Regulation 442/2011 and replaced it with Regulation 36/2012: a culmination of Regulation 442/2011 with the addition of further restrictions.

On January 23, 2012, the Council implemented Article 33(1) of Regulation 36/2012, adding twenty two individuals and eight entities to the list of EU sanctions.

On February 27, 2012, the Council added the Central Bank of Syria and seven other entities to the sanctions list.

On March 23, 2012, the Council implemented Article 32(1) of Regulation 36/2012, adding twelve Syrian individuals and two entities to the sanctions list.

On May 14, 2012, the Council implemented Article 32(1) of Regulation 36/2012, adding three Syrian individuals and two entities to the sanctions list.

On June 15, 2012, the Council amended Regulation 36/2012 to prohibit: selling equipment used for internal repression, providing financial, technical or brokering services for military equipment, or selling luxury goods to Syria.

Council Decision 2012/335/CFSP

On June 25, 2012 the Council of the European Union designated one Syrian individual and five entities to be included in the Annex of Council Decision 2011/782/CSFP.

Council Decision 2012/424/CFSP

On July 23, the Council of the European Union added twenty six individuals and three entities to the sanctions list.

On August 16, 2012, the Council implemented Regulation 742/2012, adding an entity to the Annex of Article 32(1) of Regulation 36/2012.

Council Regulation 867/2012

On September 24, 2012 the Council of the European Union amended Regulation 36/2012, further restricting the production of new power plants for electricity. In addition, the amendment clarifies acceptable transactions through the Central Bank of Syria.

Council Decision 2012/634/CFSP

On October 15, 2012, the Council of the European Union amended Council Decision 2011/782/CSFP, adding additional restrictions with regard to the purchase and transport of goods originating in Syria. Specifically, all military vehicles, military components, ammunition and weapons from Syria are prohibited from entering the Union. In addition, all financing thereof, including financial derivatives, insurance, reinsurance, and brokering services are prohibited. The amendment also added twenty-eight individuals and two entities to the list of EU sanctions. Three individuals were removed from the list.

On October 15, 2012, the Council implemented Regulation (EU) No 944/2012, which added the persons and entities listed in Council Decision 2012/634/CFSP to Annex II of Article 32(1) of Regulation 36/2012.