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Hisham Ikhtiyar

Position: Head of National Security Bureau

Sanctions: US (September 15, 2006) & EU (May 23, 2011)

The United States sanctioned Ikhtiyar in September 2006 for “significantly contributing to the Syrian government’s support for designated terrorist [organizations].”[1]

On May 23, 2011, the European Union sanctioned Hisham Ikhtiyar for his involvement in violence against the Syrian civilian population.[2] General Ikhtiyar headed the Syrian National Security Bureau, which the United States designated in May 2011, after the Bureau authorized the violent suppression of protests. Specifically, Ikhtiyar was reportedly responsible for crushing the initial pro-democracy protests in Dera’a.[3]

Ikhtiyar died on July 20, 2012, after sustaining injuries in a bomb explosion at the national security bureau in Damascus two days earlier.[4]

[1]“Treasury Designates Two Syrian Officials,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, September 15, 2006.                                                                     (

[2]The Council of the European Union, “Council Implementing Decision 2011/302/CFSP of 23 May 2011 Implementing Decision 2011/273/CFSP Concerning Restrictive Measures Against Syria,” Official Journal of the European Union, May 23, 2011, p. 136/93.                                                (

[3]“Bashar Al-Assad’s Inner Circle,” BBC News, May 18, 2011. (

[4]“Hisham Ikhtiyar Dead: Syria’s National Security Chief Dies from Wounds after Damascus Bomb Blast,” The Huffington Post, July 20, 2012. (