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Somalia and Regional Stability

March 2013

  • Somalia has been in civil war since 1991
  • Several attempts have been made to establish a central government
  • The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2006 but never was able to create stability and unity
  • Islamist forces (Islamic court and al-Shabab) exploited the vacuum in 2006 and took control of most of the country
  • The conflict  spilled  over into neighboring states, as al-Shabab declared jihad on Kenya and Ethiopia
  • Africa Union troops from Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya were dispatched in attempt to stabilize the region
  • An elected government is now in place, but it is not in full control of the country
  • Piracy and lawlessness has decreased in the country, but al-Shabab creating havoc, thanks to support from Iran and international jihadists
  • Al-Shabab has become a regional jihadi movement.  There is evidence of cooperation with AQIM of Algeria, with Boko Haram of Nigeria, and Ansar Dine of Mali
  • The rise of radical Islam in Africa has necessitated greater regional cooperation and coordination