U.S. Sanctions

Syria has been designated a State Sponsor of Terrorism since 1979. In 2004, Executive Order 13338 implemented the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003. Since then, the U.S. has imposed targeted sanctions against Syrian persons, entities, and bodies, including President Bashar al-Assad, suspected of involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, public corruption, and the recent violent crackdown on the Syrian civilian population.

Executive Order 13338
President George W. Bush signed Executive Order 13338 on May 11, 2004, which prohibited exporting or re-exporting any products from the U.S. to Syria, with the exception of food and medicine. The legislation also imposed strict limits on the ability of Syrian-owned aircraft to travel inside the U.S.; blocked the property or interests in property of certain persons; and banned specific donations to Syria.

Executive Order 13399
President Bush signed Executive Order 13399 on April 26, 2006, authorizing the secretary of the treasury to block the property of Syrian persons who were involved in planning, sponsoring, organizing, or perpetrating the February 14, 2005 assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and 22 others.

Executive Order 13460
President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13460 on February 13, 2008, blocking the property of persons connected to public corruption by senior Syrian officials.

Executive Order 13572
President Obama signed Executive Order 13572 on April 29, 2011, blocking the property of three Syrian officials with respect to human rights abuses in Syria. The order also added the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate to the Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) list.

Executive Order 13573
President Obama signed Executive Order 13573 on May 18, 2011, blocking the property or interests in property of seven Syrian officials, including President Bashar al-Assad.

Executive Order 13582
President Obama signed Executive Order 13582 on August 17, 2011, blocking the Syrian government’s access to the U.S. financial system, and prohibiting U.S. persons from engaging in dealings with it. The order also banned importing Syrian petroleum or petroleum products to the U.S., and prohibited exporting or re-exporting services from the U.S. to Syria.

Executive Order 13606
President Obama signed Executive Order 13606 on April 22, 2012, freezing the assets of those who use technology to commit human rights abuses in Syria and preventing them from entering the U.S.

Executive Order 13608
President Obama signed Executive Order 13608 on May 1, 2012, preventing those who evade U.S. sanctions against Syria from entering the U.S.

Executive Order 13628
President Obama signed Executive Order 13628 on October 9, 2012, authorizing the implementation of sanctions against those that violate the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012.